The Twelfth (also called the Glorious Twelfth) is a Protestant celebration held on 12 July. It began during the late 18th century in Ulster. It celebrates the Glorious Revolution (1688) and victory of Protestant king William of Orange over Catholic king James II at the Battle of the Boyne (1690), which began the Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland. On and around the Twelfth, large parades are held by the Orange Order and Ulster loyalist marching bands, streets are bedecked with British flags and bunting, and large towering bonfires are lit.
The Twelfth itself originated as a celebration of the Battle of Aughrim, which took place on 12 July 1691 in the Julian calendar then in use. Aughrim was the decisive battle of the Williamite war, in which the predominantly Irish Catholic Jacobite army was destroyed and the remainder capitulated at Limerick. The Twelfth in the early 18th century was a popular commemoration of this battle, featuring bonfires and parades. The Battle of the Boyne (fought on 1 July 1690) was commemorated with smaller parades on 1 July. However, the two events were combined in the late 18th century.
On this episode the presenters are joined by Dr. Pádraig Lenihan to discuss population changes in Ireland in the Early – Modern period. Dr. Lenihan discusses the Plantations, the Cromwellian Reconquest, Scottish migration during the Williamite era, the famine of 1740 – 41 and the Great Famine of 1845 to 52.
On this episode, we are joined by Professor David Fitzpatrick of Trinity College Dublin. Professor Fitzpatrick has just edited a collection of essays called Terror in Ireland – 1916 to 1923 by the Trinity History Workshop.
In the second half of the show we are joined by Dr. Micheál Ó Siochrú of Trinity College Dublin. Dr. Ó Siochrú is a lecturer in Early Modern Irish history.In the interview, Dr. Ó Siochrú talks about the causes of the 1641 rebellion in Ireland.